Label Editor

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CRITICAL INFORMATION

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Annotation and review tasks are completed in a purpose-built user interface in the Label Editor. The Label Editor interface has two modes which depend on if you are performing an annotate or a review task.

This section contains information on the Label Editor in general. More information can be found in pages relating to specific modalities:

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Note

The new Label Editor V2 is available in Encord Labs. Please contact [email protected] for access and more information. Documentation for Label Editor V2 can be found here.

The video below goes through the basics of annotating images in the Label Editor.

The video below goes through the basics of annotating videos in the Label Editor.

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Tip

Check out our Video Tutorials page for more introductory videos!

Annotation mode

Annotation mode components:


Bulk label operations

Fixing incorrect labels is an important step in producing high-quality datasets. With bulk label operations, annotators can merge labels which should really be one instance, or efficiently delete multiple labels in bulk.

Bulk label operations are accessed in the editor menu.

Merge operations

Merge one or more label objects into a single object.

  1. Select all objects to be merged in the Select objects to be merged drop-down menu.
  2. Select the target object in the Select objects to be merged into field.
  3. Click Merge.
Merge objects into a single object

Delete operations

Encord lets you perform bulk delete operations as follows:

delete labels in bulk

Remove labels of a specific class:

  1. Select a class to delete from the Select class menu.
  2. Specify the frame range.
  3. Click the Delete button.

Delete all labels within a frame range:

  1. Navigate to the Delete all labels from range section.
  2. Set a range to delete labels from.
  3. Click Delete.

Delete labels below a specified confidence level:

  1. Navigate to the Delete labels below confidence section.
  2. Set the minimum confidence threshold. All labels with a confidence value below this threshold are deleted.
  3. Specify a range of frames to delete the specified labels from.
  4. Click Delete.

Classes

In annotation mode, the Classes section of the label editor shows you the available Ontology classes, both objects and classifications. You can create a new instance by either clicking the desired class, or by using the indicated instantiation hotkeys. Learn more about Ontologies in general here or learn more about the details of Ontology structure on Encord.


Instances and Frame labels

The canvas is your labeling area to annotate the instances of the Ontology classes.

  • An instance is a specific occurrence of a class. For example, if you have a class called "Car", an instance of this class could be "Car(0)", which might represent a specific black sedan. This single instance can appear in a single frame or a range of frames, and therefore, instances may contain multiple labels across frames. You can think of an instance as a unique object that belongs to a certain class.

  • A frame label is a frame-specific annotation of an instance. For example, the annotation of "Car(0)" on frame 201 is a label. Labels are used to annotate instances in specific frames, providing more detailed information about the instance in the context of that frame.


Skip or Submit labels

Submit a task

Labels are applied in the Label Editor. Click the Submit button to submit your labels for review.

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All issues need to be resolved before a task can be submitted.

Skip a task

Users have the option to skip tasks in instances where, for example, the file is blurred, or if they suspect the task was erroneously added.

When a user skips a task, it is automatically unassigned from them, and the task's status is updated to Skipped. If another task is available, it automatically opens in the Label Editor and is assigned to the user.

  1. Click the Skip button to skip an annotation task.
  1. A dialog appears. Enter a reason for skipping the task - the reason is added as a comment to the task that annotators and reviewers can see. If no reason is entered "This task was skipped" is added by default.

Confidence score

Each instance or label is assigned a confidence score (denoted with the symbol α) that appears next to the label name.

The confidence score is a measure of a machine learning model's certainty that a given prediction is accurate. The higher the confidence score, the more certain a model is about its prediction.

Manual labels are always assigned α = 100%, while label predictions created via models and automated methods such as interpolation will have a confidence score below 100% (α < 100%).

Models allow you to select a Minimum confidence threshold that determines the lowest confidence that label predictions can have to appear as annotations. It ranges from 0 to 1.

A Minimum confidence threshold of 0.6, as seen in the image above, states that only labels above a confidence score α = 60% will be accepted as labels.


Instance details pane

The sidebar displays the Ontology Classes and Instance and frame labels panes, you can click on an instance in the canvas to open the Instance details pane for that instance. Alternatively, it can be opened by clicking on the 'Edit classifications' edit classification icon button on a label instance in the Instances tab. Here, you can view the instance class, the instance ID and any nested classifications if present.

Attributes

The details pane allows you to modify attributes. Additionally, for dynamic attributes, you can use the 'Preserve chosen state' feature. When toggled 'ON', subsequent labels of that instance will be created with the dynamic attribute having the same value as was selected in the frame where 'Preserve chosen state' was selected.

Instance keyboard shortcuts

The Show Instance Draw Hotkey is located at the top of the pane under the instance ID. Hover over this section to view the hotkey for creating additional labels of this instance. This method offers a more convenient way to identify the drawing hotkey than searching through the Instance and Frame Labels pane. To prevent conflicts with <<glossary:attribute>-setting hotkeys, ensure the details pane is closed before creating new labels for that instance.

Finally, click the frames in the frame range in blue under the Show Instance Draw Hotkey section to jump to the start and end of various frame ranges where the instance appears. The instance details pane will remain open until you either click on another instance, click Done, or press the Esc key.

Instance detail sidebar

Object search

Click the magnifying glass icon to open the Search object interface. Choose the ontology class, and then the sequential ID of the desired instance, and it will appear in the search result area, directly under the class and ID selection fields.

Instances tab

The Instances tab shows all the instantiated objects and classifications in a given data asset.

Objects are grouped first by class, and sorted by creation time within each class, with earlier objects on top. They are named in an "ABC (0)" format, where ABC is the ontology class and 0 is the first instance annotation. Frame-level classifications are all stored under the 'Classifications' section, and sorted by creation time with the oldest first.

To work with the details of any given instance, expand its class in the Instances tab and the following icons in the desired instance row to perform any of the following actions.

Instantiate icon instantiate icon: Use the Instantiate icon to create new labels of the given object. You can also use the assigned instance draw hotkey to create new labels of a given instance.

Edit classifications icon edit classification icon : Edit classifications for an existing object. You can reach the same interface by clicking an annotation in the canvas as well.

Hide icon hide icon : Click the Hide icon at the class level to toggle display or all instances of that class.You can hide or show individual objects by clicking in the corresponding object row as well.

Click the (three dots icon) icon to access additional actions described below.

Copy URL: Copies the URL for the particular object.

Copy identifier: Each object instance is automatically assigned a unique alphanumeric ID, which can be used to identify it within the project. This ID is sometimes known alternately as a feature hash, instance hash, or instance identifier. For objects and classifications, it may also be known as the object hash or classification hash. Use this button to copy the instance identifier to your clipboard -- which may help in workflows using specific instances in source code or for other purposes.

Track from this frame: Initiates single object tracking, a form of automated labeling that will create labels for the specified object from the current frame, according to the Single object tracking settings section in the editor settings.

Interpolate: Interpolates this object's location for a range between specified frames. Please see our documentation on interpolation for more details.

Go to object: Navigate to the specified object in the data asset. If it is present in more than one frame, the first frame the object appears it will be shown.

Split object track: In some cases, particularly when many objects overlap, labels may be associated with the correct instance in several frames, but later become associated with a different instance. In those cases, use the Split object track feature, which will split the labels from one instance into two at the frame specified.

Change class: Use the drop-down in the modal to change the current class of an instance. You can only switch within classes of the same annotation type. For example, you cannot switch from a bounding box to a polygon.

Delete object: Delete an object from a single frame or a range of frames. To delete labels between frame ranges, move the frame slider to the desired frames, or input the From and To (exclusive) values in the relevant form. Delete actions are recorded in the User activity log. You can view the deleted objects in the Activity reports.


Automated Labeling

Automated labeling includes several techniques to quickly create labels and classifications automatically.

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For a more detailed explanation of these features, please visit our automated labeling page.

  1. Click the Automated labeling button to open the Automated labeling panel.
  2. Select the type of automated labeling you want to use.
  3. Run automated labeling for the selected objects.

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Label Editor V2 allows you to quickly run object tracking or interpolation on videos, image groups, and image sequences by:

  1. Right-clicking a label.
  2. Selecting Track from this frame to initiate object tracking, or select Interpolate to interpolate the selected object instance.

Segment anything model (SAM)

Segment anything model (SAM) allows you to create labels around distinct features in all supported file formats.

  • Click the icon within the Polygon class.
  • Click on the part of the frame or image you would like segmented.
    • Left-click a section you would like to add to your label.
    • Right-click a part of the selected area to remove it from the label.
  • Click Add label once the area you want labeled is highlighted.

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A step-by-step guide for using SAM can be found here.


Editing Tools

Encord provides multiple tools to edit labels after they have been created.

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The manner in which editing tools are used varies considerably between Label Editor V1 and Label Editor V2. Ensure you are viewing the section applicable to the Label Editor version you are using.

Adding a polygon vertex - Label Editor V1

You can add more vertices to a polygon after it has been created.

  1. Click the polygon you want to add a vertex to
  2. Click the icon in the floating window that appears, or use the A hotkey to activate 'Add vertex mode'
  3. Move the mouse, which should now be in a '+' icon, over the edge where you wish to add a vertex. The edge in question
    should highlight indicating you've placed the mouse correctly. Click to place a vertex
  4. Continue placing vertices until you're satisfied. Press A or click the icon on the floating toolbar to turn off add vertex mode

Adding a polygon or polyline vertex - Label Editor V2

You can add more vertices to a polygon after it has been created.

  1. Click the polygon you want to add a vertex to
  2. Click the position along the edge of the polygon you want to add a vertex. Repeat to add as many vertices as necessary.

Removing a polygon or polyline vertex - Label Editor V1

Remove vertices from a polygon as follows:

  1. Click on the polygon you'd like to remove a vertex from.
  2. Click the icon in the toolbar that appears, or use the S hotkey to activate 'Remove vertex mode'.
  3. Move the cursor to the vertex you would like to remove. The cursor should have a 'cancel' icon attached.
  4. Click the vertex you'd like to remove.
  5. Continue removing any vertices until you're satisfied.
  6. Click the icon from step 2 again, or press the S hotkey again to exit 'Remove vertex mode'.

Removing a polygon or polyline vertex - Label Editor V2

Remove vertices from a polygon as follows:

  1. Click the polygon you want to remove vertices from
  2. Right-click a vertex to delete it

Bulk-remove polygon or polyline vertices

If you need to remove more than one vertex you can save time by using the bulk-remove feature.

  1. Select the icon from the quick toolbar.
  2. Click and hold the tool on a vertex you want to remove. Without letting go of the mouse, move along the polygon. This will remove each vertex your cursor comes into contact with.
  3. Let go of the mouse to exit 'Bulk-remove vertex' mode.

Freehand edge touchup - Label Editor V1

If you need to modify the edge of a polygon to account for complicated shapes or other requirements, the freehand edge touchup feature allows you edit the edge of the polygon in a free-hand manner, from one vertex to another.

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If you need to edit your shape along the edge of the polygon, between vertices, use the polygon brush tool instead.

  1. Click the polygon you would like to edit.
  2. Click the icon in the floating toolbar that appears, or use the F hotkey to activate 'freehand edge touchup' mode.
  3. Mouse over the vertex you would like to start editing from, and click to start the edit process.
  4. Drag the cursor freely to draw out the new polygon edge. Navigate the cursor to the pre-existing vertex you want to finish on, and click to finalize the new edge boundary.

Polygon and polyline brush tool

Use the brush tool to modify the edge of a polygon or polyline in a free-hand manner.

  1. Click the polygon you would like to edit.
  2. Click the icon in the floating toolbar that appears, or use the G hotkey to activate 'Edit with brush' mode.
  3. Adjust the brush size to suit your needs.
  4. Mouse over location you would like to start editing from, and click and hold to start the edit process.
  5. Drag the cursor freely to draw out the new polygon edge. Navigate the cursor to the location you want to finish on and let go of mouse when you have reached the location you want your new shape to be.

Eraser tool

Use the eraser tool to remove any part of a polygon in a free-hand manner.

  1. Click the polygon you would like to edit.
  2. Click the icon in the floating toolbar that appears, or use the G hotkey to activate 'Edit with brush' mode.
  3. Select the eraser tool by clicking the symbol highlighted in the screenshot above.
  4. Adjust the brush size to suit your needs.
  5. Mouse over location you would like to start editing from, and click and hold to start the edit process.
  6. Drag the cursor freely to draw out the new polygon edge. Navigate the cursor to the location you want to finish on and let go of mouse when you've reached the location you want your new shape to be.

Label Editor V2

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Note

The new Label Editor V2 is only available in Encord Labs. Contact [email protected] for access and more information.

Label Editor V2 introduces functionality and shortcuts to enhance your annotation experience with all annotation shapes available in Encord.

ShapeInteractionsModalities
BitmaskAbility to move (one or multiple)All
Ability to ‘select multiple’ with Shift + clickAll
Draw using polygon ‘pen’All
Panoptic modeAll
PolygonAll
Add vertex with left-clickAll
Remove vertex with right-clickAll
PolylineAll
Add vertex with left-clickAll
Remove vertex with right-clickAll

Right-click a label to bring up the following options:

ShapeRight-click InteractionsModalities
Bounding BoxTrack from this frameVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
InterpolateVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
Split object trackAll
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll
Rotatable Bounding BoxTrack from this frameVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
InterpolateVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
Split object trackAll
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll
PolygonInterpolateAll
Split object trackAll
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll
PolylineTrack from this frameVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
InterpolateVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
Split object trackAll
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll
KeypointTrack from this frameVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
InterpolateVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
Split object trackAll
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll
BitmaskInterpolateVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll
Select more bitmasks to combineAll
Object PrimitiveTrack from this frameVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
InterpolateVideos, image groups, and image sequences only
Change classAll
Copy identifierAll
Delete objectAll
Copy URLAll

Review mode

The video below goes through the basics of reviewing images in the Label Editor.

The video below goes through the basics of reviewing videos in the Label Editor.

As a reviewer, your label editor workspace will look as below. Learn how to use the features in the components illustrated below.

Review mode components


Single label review

The normal review mode displays all labels simultaneously, allowing you to quickly approve or reject many labels in bulk actions. Alternately, enter the Single label review mode by toggling the switch at the top left. The single label review mode automatically highlights the selected instance, and hides all other objects. This allows you to carefully review one instance at a time including their attributes, and quickly iterate through the different instances using the Up and Down keys on your keyboard or by clicking the appropriate buttons in the UI.

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The Single label review feature can also be considered "turbo review mode," analogous to the "turbo attribute mode" in annotation mode, because it allows the reviewer to quickly step through and review instance attributes. "Turbo attribute mode" in the editor settings can be disabled while in review mode.

Single label review settings

The default zoom level for single label review can be adjusted to suit your needs.

  1. Open the editor settings by clicking in the editor header.

  2. In the General settings section adjust the Set the default zoom level for single label view value highlighted in the screenshot below. The settings will be applied for the next selected label.

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  • Initially, the default is set to 60%
  • 20% corresponds to no zoom. It's the magnification at which the image or frame is displayed in the label editor.
  • To zoom in, increase the percentage value.
  • To zoom out, decrease the percentage value. The minimum value is 1%.

Report missing labels

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This feature is only available for Manual QA projects.

If a reviewer determines that a label is missing entirely (as opposed to annotated incorrectly), they can use the report missing labels feature to indicate labels are missing in a given frame or image. Navigate to the frame with the missing labels and use the Report missing labels button to create a report at that frame. You can only create one missing label report per frame per review task -- subsequent reports at the same frame in the same task will overwrite previous reports. Missing label reports will be sent back to the annotator via the same issues list as rejected labels.


Edit labels during review

It is sometimes faster, more convenient, and less error-prone to have reviewers make edits to annotations, instead of outright rejecting them. Rejection requires the return of the entire set of labels to the annotator.

Edit review allows reviewers to make changes to labels, remove labels, and add new labels. Approved or rejected labels cannot be edited. Only Pending labels can be edited by reviewers. New labels made by editors are automatically approved, and cannot be changed once they have been saved. Once all labels have been approved the task moves to the Complete stage.

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Tip

We recommend enabling Strict review on Review blocks when configuring Workflows. Strict review allows reviewers to revert approved labels back to Pending, giving reviewers the option to make changes to new labels drawn while editing labels.

To edit labels in review mode:

  1. Click the Edit labels button.
  1. Add or remove labels, or edit existing labels as necessary using the same interface annotators use to create labels.

  2. Click the Save and return to review button to save your edits and return to review mode.

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The Save and return to review button replaces the Save and Cancel buttons used in earlier versions of this feature.

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Caution

Edit review is primarily optimized for use in Workflow projects. It is available for Manual QA projects, but lacks some functionality.

  • There is no way to edit Classifications.
  • There is no way to edit approved or rejected labels, as Strict review is not available in Manual QA Projects
  • Labels created during Edit review are not added to the review stage and can not be seen in the Label Editor.

Pending reviews pane

All labels for review for a particular data asset assigned to the reviewer are automatically loaded into then Pending reviews pane. The labels are grouped by Ontology class.


Completed reviews pane

Completed reviews are displayed in the Completed reviews pane. You can click on specific objects to highlight them. Labels can be selected and then approved or rejected for a given instance or in bulk using the Reject and Approve buttons or the matching hotkeys, b for reject and n for approve. Approved labels appear in a green background and rejected labels appear in red.


Approve and Reject all in frame buttons

The Approve all in frame and Reject all in frame buttons take the named action without having to select a particular instance or set of instances. This speeds up workflows, particularly in images, where you can judge whether all instances are correct or not by looking at an individual frame.

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Caution

The Approve all in frame and Reject all in frame buttons apply to all instances present in a frame, rather than labels. This means that all instances with labels in the current frame will have all of their labels approved or rejected.

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The Approve all in frame and Reject all in frame buttons can be hidden in the general settings.


Reject and Approve buttons

To reject/approve multiple object instances across frames, select the instances, and then click the Reject or Approve button, as appropriate. Alternately, you may press b for reject and n for approve.


Change review judgement

Video Tutorial - Strict review & change review judgement

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This feature is not available for Manual QA projects.

Reviewed instances can be reverted to pending. Reverting a review allows reviewers to make adjustments to one or more instances after making their initial review.

  1. Revert labels to pending:
  • Revert an approved task to pending by clicking the icon next to the instance.
  • Revert a rejected task to pending by clicking the icon next to the instance.
  1. Once the reviewer completes their review, they need to click the Approve task or Reject task to finalize the review.

Controls common to both modes

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The current workflow status is displayed in the top left corner of the label editor.

Editor menu

Open the editor menu by clicking the icon in the top left corner of the Label Editor.

The editor menu contains the following controls:

  • Return to Project - Returns the user to the Project navigation.
  • Save changes - Saves the current state of all labels.
  • View - Allows users to change what information is displayed next to all labels.
  • Bulk label operations (annotation mode only) - Allows the user to perform actions on many labels at once.
  • Automated labeling (annotation mode only) - Lets the user choose between several automated labeling techniques.
  • Dark mode - Toggle dark mode on and off.
  • Keyboard shortcuts - Displays a full list of keyboard shortcuts.
  • Editor settings - Opens the Editor settings.

Editor header

Editor header menu

The Editor header at the top-right of the navigation bar contains buttons and menu items to perform labeling activities as well as manage general app settings and notifications.

IconNameDescription
HelpLinks to the: quick start guide, documentation, learning hub, and Encord support team.
NotificationsShows the current status and history of actions taken in the application. This includes uploading datasets, training models, and exporting labels.
ShareCopies the URL of the asset currently being labeled or reviewed.
Save labelsManually saves labels on the Encord server.
Label editor settingsSettings controlling your labeling and reviewing experience.
CommentsAdd and view comments pertaining to a frame, or the entire data unit.
IssuesShows any issues with submitting the current task, such as any objects or classifications marked as Required.

Quick toolbar

Quick toolbar

A toolbar with handy tools to:

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Trimming polygon vertices (the scissors tool) is currently not available in review or review-edit mode.

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Click the zoom icon again to disable zoom.


Rotate the label editor

Click the icon on the quick toolbar to bring up a pop-up that enables you to rotate the label editor by using the slider, as shown below.

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Click the icon to rotate the editor in increments of 90 degrees.


Pixelated scaling

The Pixelated scaling feature enhances the visibility of individual pixels in an image or frame by disabling the browser's automatic edge smoothing. This increased pixel clarity aids annotators in creating precise, pixel-perfect annotations, thereby improving their annotation accuracy, especially when zooming into an image.

Pixelated Scaling turned onPixelated Scaling turned off

Enable Pixelated scaling by selecting the Adjust filters icon ()in the Quick toolbar and enabling the Pixelated scaling checkbox, as shown below.

Pixelated scaling is a browser-specific feature. The table below shows which types of files Pixelated scaling works for Firefox and Chrome.

File typeChromeFirefox
Image
Image group
Video
Image sequence

Media navigation controls

The video frame slider lets you quickly scroll through frames in a video asset. Below the frame slider are a range of controls to let you play, skip and navigate through media. Notice that the navigation controls are not displayed in single images files, as well as any media with only 1 frame.

Icon descriptions

The Time and Frame rate information for each frame is displayed in the far lower right corner.


Comments

Comments can be added to a task, to individual frames within a task, or to specific locations within a frame.

Adding a comment

Select the icon on the editor header, and click the location on the frame currently being viewed to add a comment.

Alternatively, you can add comments pertaining to the entire task, or the frame as a whole by clicking the icon located in the top right corner of the label editor.

Viewing all comments in a task

To see all the comments in the task that is currently open, click the icon located in the top right corner of the label editor.

The symbols to the left of each comment imply whether the comment pertains to a particular frame, or the entire task.

IconMeaning
This comment applies to the entire task
This comment applies to a particular frame
This comment applies to a particular location within a frame

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The numbers on frame-level and location specific comments show which frame the comment applies to. Click on the number to open up the frame in the label editor.

Issues drawer

The Issues drawer will show any outstanding issues the user needs to resolve before moving on to the next task. It is accessed by clicking the icon on the editor header. The red number next to the icon indicates the number of issues that need to be resolved.

Issues include objects and classifications that have been marked as Required in the ontology.

Resolving issues

To resolve all outstanding issues follow the steps below:

  1. Click the icon to open the issues drawer.
  2. Click Create.
  3. Create the Required object or classification that's missing and click Confirm.
  4. Re-open the Issues drawer and resolve the next issue.

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See our documentation on objects and classifications for more information on these topics!

Editor lock

The "Editor lock" is a safety feature we implemented to prevent several people making changes to the same file - annotators labeling, or reviewers reviewing the same data unit.

A warning is triggered in two cases:

  1. When you have the same task open in two different tabs or browser windows:
  1. When a different user is editing the same task:

Editor settings

All users can configure the Label Editor, and configure the Label Editor to their specific needs. This includes changing the way elements display, drawing settings, and settings related to automated labeling.

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A user's settings persist and do not reset at the end of a session.

Editor settings are divided into several sections which can be filtered using the search bar:

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Use the search bar at the top of the Editor settings to search for specific settings, or keywords.

Editor settings sections

Data details

The Data details section displays information about the asset currently open for annotation, or review. This information is gotten from the data itself, and is not available for direct manipulation. We use this section to provide you with valuable information about the data you are working on, including if we may have detected any possible issues with the data encoding.

SettingDescription
Data titleThe title of the file currently open in the Label Editor.
Data typeThe type of data unit currently open in the Label Editor.
DimensionsThe size of the image or frame currently open in the Label Editor.
Frames per secondfrequently abbreviated FPS, this is the number of frames, or images, per second in a video. Higher FPS means smoother playback. This value is only valid for videos.
Browser compatibilitySome videos may have FPS or video encoding issues synchronizing drawn labels with frames in modern browsers. You can read more about supported videos here, and learn more about frame synchronization issues here and in our documentation here.

General settings

general settings in label editor
Auto-save interval

To prevent accidentally losing work, the Label Editor automatically saves your work. Use this setting to control how often labels are automatically saved. The minimum time interval for autosaving is 15 seconds and maximum is 600 seconds. By default, annotations are saved every 120 seconds.

Display bulk Approve/Reject buttons

A toggle show or hide the buttons to approve all, or reject all instances present in the frame.

Invert mouse wheel zoom direction

By default, scrolling up will zoom out and scrolling down will zoom in. Toggle this switch to invert the scroll-zoom mapping.

Display timestamps

A toggle to display timestamps instead of frame numbers for object and classification instances.

Turbo mode

Turbo mode simplifies the standard annotation workflow, enabling labelers to rapidly assign or confirm attributes. Activate turbo mode and choose an instance from the top-left dropdown menu to set the instance and its relevant attributes.

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In turbo mode, the autozoom feature automatically focuses the camera on the active instance as you browse through them. You can adjust the zoom manually to get a better view of the instance's context. The view auto-zooms again when moving to another instance.

Enable turbo mode:

  1. Open the editor settings.
  2. Use the search bar to search for Turbo mode.
  3. Enable the Turbo mode toggle.
Frame skip interval

The frame skip interval determines the number of frames skipped when using the forward and backward frame-skip buttons. The setting allows you to include custom numbers of frame skip intervals that are available in the video playback controls.

Enable skip to next annotation buttons

For long videos with sparsely labeled frames, sometimes it helps to quickly jump between frames with labels. Toggle on the skip to next annotation buttons to add an extra set of playback controls which enable navigation straight to the next frame, either forward or backward, with labels. This will apply for objects and classifications. The screenshot below shows the video playback controls with the toggle off and on, respectively.

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Tip

For lengthy videos that have labels on few frames, enabling the skip to next annotation buttons adds extra playback controls. These controls allow you to move forwards or backwards between labeled frames (for both objects and classifications).

skip to next annotation
Display image title

A toggle to show or hide the data unit title in the label editor.


Label display settings

The Label display section of the Label editor settings contains the following components:

Display object names

The Display object names toggle allows you to display the names of annotation objects in the Label Editor.

Display object hash

The Display object hash toggle allows you to display the label hash (ID) of annotation objects in the Label Editor.

Display object classifications

The Display object classifications toggle allows you to display attributes of annotation objects in the Label Editor.

Object label font size

The Object label font size allows you to set the font size (in px) of all Label display settings.


Drawing settings

Drawing settings in label editor settings

The Drawing settings section of the Label editor settings contains the following components:

Handle size

Adjust the size of corners, vertices, and keypoints. Larger vertices are easier to spot but may disrupt visibility of the surrounding areas. The possible range is from 1 pixel to 10 pixels, but handles cannot be disabled entirely.

Object opacity

Adjust the opacity of object labels to balance label visibility with the clarity of the underlying image. Higher opacity makes labels more noticeable but can obscure the labeled content, especially if labels overlap. Lower opacity might make labels less visible during a quick scan.

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Note

The setting can range from 1% to 100%. 1% is essentially transparent, and 100% is completely opaque.

Selected object opacity

Adjust the opacity for the selected instance, calculated as a multiplier of the value defined in object opacity. The opacity multiplier can range from 1x (same as all other instances) to 10x.

Primitive keypoint sensitivity

Adjust this setting to control the necessary precision when adjusting primitive keypoint positions. Low values require high precision -- you must click exactly over the keypoint in question in order to adjust it. High values give the opposite behavior -- you can select and move primitive keypoints even while the cursor is a good distance from the point in question.

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Note

Possible values range from a minimum of 1.00 and maximum of 10.00.

Segment anything RDP parameter

Set the RDP parameter for the Segment-anything Model (SAM).

Drawing line aides

Aids in creating more accurate labels by adding crosshairs on the canvas to indicate where a label is drawn.

Drawing line aides
Freehand drawing & Polygon coarseness

Use freehand drawing to draw a polygon or polyline as you move the mouse, without explicitly having to click to place each vertex. The coarseness controls the spacing between two vertices. A low Polygon coarseness allows for high resolution polygons, but creates high vertex counts.

  1. Click once to start drawing your label.
  2. Move the cursor to draw the polygon or polyline
  3. Click again to complete your label.

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Tip

To avoid possible performance issues with large polygons, set the coarseness only as fine as necessary to accurately define the desired segmentation.

Show polyshape angles

Polygon and polyline angles can be displayed in the label editor to provide useful insights into your labels.

  1. Open the label editor Settings by clicking on the editor header.
  2. Navigate to the Drawing settings section and enable the Show polyshape angles toggle. Click back on to the slice to display the angles.
  3. Draw a polygon or polyline as you usually would.

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Note

Enabling the toggle will display angles for any existing polyshapes.

Permanent drawing (new instances)

Continue drawing new instances without having to press the drawing hotkey for a given ontology category. After drawing an instance of a given category, the editor will stay on the same frame and immediately prompt you to create another instance of the same category. It’s normally used to create many instances of a certain class in a given frame.

Useful in semi-automated workflows where the annotator labels many instances in certain keyframes and then uses tracking or interpolation features to fill in the remainder. The video below shows the difference between creating many objects with Permanent drawing (new instances) toggled off and then on.

Continue creating new instances in the same Ontology category without reselecting the drawing hotkey. After drawing an instance, the editor remains on the same frame, ready for you to add another instance of the same category.

Permanent drawing (new instances) is beneficial in semi-automated workflows where an annotator labels multiple instances of a class in a single frame and then employs tracking or interpolation for the rest.

Permanent drawing (existing instances)

Continue drawing labels of the same instance without pressing the drawing hotkey every time for the given object instance. After creating a label of an already existing instance, the Label Editor automatically advances forward the currently specified frame skip interval and prompts for the creation of a new label of that instance on the new frame. Accelerate workflows which create many labels for specific instances throughout a data asset and also makes it easy to apply dynamic attributes through the Preserve chosen state functionality. The following video showcases the difference in creating multiple labels of the same instance with the Permanent drawing (existing instances) on and off.

Enable Permanent drawing (existing instances) to continue labeling the same instance without repeatedly pressing the drawing hotkey. After labeling an existing instance, the Label Editor automatically moves forward by the set frame skip interval, prompting you to label that instance on the new frame.

Skeleton points

This toggles the display of the individual primitive keypoint names. Since object primitives may have many points in complex shapes, displaying the names can help ensure each point is placed appropriately and that the entire annotation is oriented correctly.

Interpolation auto adjustments

Enabling this toggle ensures that only labels with a confidence score (α) of 99% are overwritten in successive interpolations, while manual labels (α = 100%) are kept and serve as key frames.


Object tracking

Number of frames to predict

Adjust how many frames from the current frame object tracking tracks for. For example, if you start on frame 50, and set Number of frames to predict to 50, the tracker attempts to predict labels on frames up to and including frame 100

Tracking model

Choose between the Standard and Advanced tracking models for object tracking. The Standard model runs faster, but may not be as accurate. The Advanced model has enhanced accuracy, but may take more time because it requires more computations.


Keyboard shortcuts

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Note

The words 'keyboard shortcuts' and 'hotkeys' are used interchangeably and refer to the same concept.

Use the following hotkeys to speed up common or useful operations.

Common editor operations

ActionHotkey
Save labelsShift + S
Play / Pause Space
Frame forward Right
Frame backward Left
Zoom in Shift + Up
Zoom out Shift + Down
Track selected object from frame Shift + T
Track selected object from range Shift + D
Mark label row as not labeled Shift + Y
Mark label row as in progress Shift + U
Mark label row as labeled Shift + I
Mark label row as review required Shift + O
Mark label row as reviewed Shift + P
Toggle turbo attribute mode Ctrl + Shift + T / Cmd + Shift + T
Toggle turbo attribute mode auto-zoom Ctrl + Shift + Y / Cmd + Shift + Y
Toggle permanent drawing Ctrl + Shift + P / Cmd + Shift + P
Reject label B
Approve label N
Submit task Shift + Enter
Render next review task (Turbo review mode only) Up
Render preview review task (Turbo review mode only) Down

Drawing operations

ActionHotkey
Select additional drawingCtrl + Click object / Cmd + Click object
Select all drawingsCtrl + A / Cmd + A
Copy to clipboard Ctrl + C / Cmd + C
Paste from clipboard Ctrl + V / Cmd + V
Change class type C
Save labels Ctrl + S / Cmd + S
Activate/Deactivate add vertex A
Activate/Deactivate delete vertex S
Enable free hand drawing D
Enable edit mode for polygons and polylines F
Delete drawing Backspace / Del
Undo Ctrl + Z / Cmd + Z
Redo Ctrl + Shift + Z / Cmd + Shift + Z
Drag imageCtrl + Click and drag / Cmd + Click and drag
SAM segmentationontology hotkey + Shift + A

DICOM specific operations

ActionHotkey
Windowing modificationAlt + W / Option + W
Measurement tool Alt + M / Option + M
Measurement tool Alt + M / Option + M

WACOM tablet support

Our label editor fully supports Wacom tablets and pens. You get the best experience if you enable freehand drawing mode.